Three scientists have won the Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology after discovering how cells precisely transport material. James Rothman and Randy Schekman, both from the US, and Thomas Sudhof, from Germany, shared the prize. They found the way "vesicles" act like a fleet of ships transporting their goods to the exact destination. It is crucial for the way the brain communicates, the release of hormones and parts of the immune system. The billions of cells which make up the body are not empty blobs, instead they are packed with precise machinery. In order for a cell to function properly it needs the right materials in the right place at the right time.